Type-generic math
The header <tgmath.h>
includes the headers <math.h>
and <complex.h>
and defines several type-generic macros that determine which real or, when applicable, complex function to call based on the types of the arguments.
For each macro, the parameters whose corresponding real type in the unsuffixed math.h function is double are known as generic parameters (for example, both parameters of pow are generic parameters, but only the first parameter of scalbn is a generic parameter)
When a <tgmath.h>
macro is used the types of the arguments passed to the generic parameters determine which function is selected by the macro as described below. If the types of the arguments are not compatible with the parameter types of the selected function, the behavior is undefined (e.g. if a complex argument is passed into a real-only tgmath macro: float complex fc; ceil(fc) or double complex dc; double d; fmax(dc, d) are examples of undefined behavior)
Note: type-generic macros were implemented in implementation-defined manner in C99, but C11 keyword _Generic makes it possible to implement these macros in portable manner.
Complex/real type-generic macros
For all functions that have both real and complex counterparts, a type-generic macro XXX
exists, which calls either of:
- real function:
- float variant
XXXf
- double variant
XXX
- long double variant
XXXl
- float variant
- complex function:
- float variant
cXXXf
- double variant
cXXX
- long double variant
cXXXl
- float variant
An exception to the above rule is the fabs
macro (see the table below).
The function to call is determined as follows:
- If any of the arguments for the generic parameters is imaginary, the behavior is specified on each function reference page individually (in particular, sin, cos, tag, cosh, sinh, tanh, asin, atan, asinh, and atanh call real functions, the return types of sin, tan, sinh, tanh, asin, atan, asinh, and atanh are imaginary, and the return types of cos and cosh are real)
- If any of the arguments for the generic parameters is complex, then the complex function is called, otherwise the real function is called.
- If any of the arguments for the generic parameters is long double, then the long double variant is called. Otherwise, if any of the parameters is double or integer, then the double variant is called. Otherwise, float variant is called.
The type-generic macros are as follows:
Type-generic macro | Real function variants |
Complex function variants | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
float |
double |
long double |
float |
double |
long double | |
fabs | fabsf | fabs | fabsl | cabsf | cabs | cabsl |
exp | expf | exp | expl | cexpf | cexp | cexpl |
log | logf | log | logl | clogf | clog | clogl |
pow | powf | pow | powl | cpowf | cpow | cpowl |
sqrt | sqrtf | sqrt | sqrtl | csqrtf | csqrt | csqrtl |
sin | sinf | sin | sinl | csinf | csin | csinl |
cos | cosf | cos | cosl | ccosf | ccos | ccosl |
tan | tanf | tan | tanl | ctanf | ctan | ctanl |
asin | asinf | asin | asinl | casinf | casin | casinl |
acos | acosf | acos | acosl | cacosf | cacos | cacosl |
atan | atanf | atan | atanl | catanf | catan | catanl |
sinh | sinhf | sinh | sinhl | csinhf | csinh | csinhl |
cosh | coshf | cosh | coshl | ccoshf | ccosh | ccoshl |
tanh | tanhf | tanh | tanhl | ctanhf | ctanh | ctanhl |
asinh | asinhf | asinh | asinhl | casinhf | casinh | casinhl |
acosh | acoshf | acosh | acoshl | cacoshf | cacosh | cacoshl |
atanh | atanhf | atanh | atanhl | catanhf | catanh | catanhl |
Real-only functions
For all functions that do not have complex counterparts, with the exception of modf
, a type-generic macro XXX
exists, which calls either of the variants of a real function:
- float variant
XXXf
- double variant
XXX
- long double variant
XXXl
The function to call is determined as follows:
- If any of the arguments for the generic parameters is long double, then the long double variant is called. Otherwise, if any of the arguments for the generic parameters is double, then the double variant is called. Otherwise, float variant is called.
Complex-only functions
For all complex number functions that do not have real counterparts, a type-generic macro cXXX
exists, which calls either of the variants of a complex function:
The function to call is determined as follows:
- If any of the arguments for the generic parameters is real, complex, or imaginary, then the appropriate complex function is called.
Type-generic macro | Complex function variants | ||
---|---|---|---|
float |
double |
long double | |
carg | cargf | carg | cargl |
conj | conjf | conj | conjl |
creal | crealf | creal | creall |
cimag | cimagf | cimag | cimagl |
cproj | cprojf | cproj | cprojl |
Example
#include <stdio.h> #include <tgmath.h> int main(void) { int i = 2; printf("sqrt(2) = %f\n", sqrt(i)); // argument type is int, calls sqrt float f = 0.5; printf("sin(0.5f) = %f\n", sin(f)); // argument type is float, calls sinf float complex dc = 1 + 0.5*I; float complex z = sqrt(dc); // argument type is float complex, calls csqrtf printf("sqrt(1 + 0.5i) = %f+%fi\n", creal(z), // argument type is float complex, calls crealf cimag(z)); // argument type is float complex, calls cimagf }
Output:
sqrt(2) = 1.414214 sin(0.5f) = 0.479426 sqrt(1 + 0.5i) = 1.029086+0.242934i
References
- C11 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2011):
- 7.25 Type-generic math <tgmath.h> (p: 373-375)
- C99 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1999):
- 7.22 Type-generic math <tgmath.h> (p: 335-337)